Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Ancient Egypt - Dynasty 4

The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt is called (the golden age).from 2613 to 2494 BC, 115 years. The capital at fourth dynasty time was Memphis. Fourth Dynasty is the height of Egyptian civilization ever, the family which has built the Pyramids of Giza, the most famous buildings in world history forever. Egypt was able to accomplish the ambitious feat of the Giza pyramids because there had been a long period of peace and no threats of invasion.

Giza Pyramids

The kings of fourth dynasty:

Palermo Stone Petrie Museum
Sneferu ruled Egypt of 2613 BC to 2589. He was the founder of the Fourth Dynasty in Egypt. He is the first king of the construction of the pyramid is real. Three famous pyramids associated with the name of King Senefru (Meidum Pyramid, Red Pyramid and Bent pyramids at Dahshur).This pyramids that survive to this day.

Predecessor (Huni)
Successor (Khufu)
Children (Nefermaat, Rahotep, Ranefer, Hetepheres A, Khufu, Kanefer, Ankhhaf, Netjeraperef, Iynefer I, Meritites I, Nefertkau, Nefertnesu, Henutsen)
Mother (Meresankh I)
Monuments (Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid, Meidum Pyramid)
King Sneferu
Meidum Pyramid (this pyramid was possibly started by his predecessor Huni).
Meidum Pyramid
Meidum Pyramid (Google Earth)
Red Pyramid takes this name from the red limestone. Pyramid height 104m, base 220 m.

Red Pyramid
Red Pyramid
Red Pyramid
Red Pyramid (Google Earth)

The Bent Pyramid this pyramid built by Sneferu, height 101 m, base 188 m.

Bent Pyramid
Bent Pyramid 
Bent Pyramid
Bent Pyramid
Bent Pyramid (Google Earth)
Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt's (Old Kingdom). He ruled from around 2589 to 2566 B.C. 23 years. Generally Khufu was accepted as being the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Khufu's full name was (Khnum-Khufu) by the meaning (the god Khnum protects me).The history remembers Khufu, the Great Pyramid of Giza as a testament to his tremendous ability to coordinate hundreds of workers towards one purpose. It is through this fantastic architectural marvel that Khufu will be remembered as one of many famous Egyptian pharaohs.

Reign from 2589 to 2566 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Sneferu)
Successor (Djedefre)
Children (Kawab, Djedefhor, Hetepheres II, Meritites II, Meresankh II, Baufra, Djedefra, Minkhaf I, Khafre, Khufukhaf I, Babaef I, Horbaef, Nefertiabet, possibly Khamerernebty I, possibly Nefermaat II)
Father (Pharaoh Sneferu)
Mother (Queen Hetepheres I)
Monuments (Great Pyramid of Giza, Khufu ship)
King Khufu Egyptian museum
King Khufu Egyptian museum
King Khufu Egyptian museum
Great Pyramid is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one still intact. Height 146m, long on each side 240m, and consists of 2,300,000 blocks of stone, each averaging 2 1/2 tons in weight. Great Pyramid was the tallest structure in the world for over 3,800 years.

Great Pyramid
Great Pyramid
Great Pyramid (Google Earth)

From the book Guide to the Pyramids of Egypt, by Alberto Siliotti, with preface by Zahi Hawass
The American University in Cairo Press
113 Kasr el Aini Street
Cairo Egypt
ISBN 977-424-446-X

Khufu's Solar Boat, it was built to carry a Pharaoh across the Nile. Now it rests in a solar boat museum beside Khufu pyramid. The boat measured 43.6m long by 5.9m wide; and it is around 45 tons.

Solar Boat
Solar Boat
Solar Boat in Stamp
Solar Boat (Google Earth)
Solar Boat Museum
Solar Boat Museum (Google Earth)

Djedefre was the son and successor of Khufu. He ruled Egypt from 2528 BC, to 2520 BC. (8 years). His name meaning (enduring like Re). He built his pyramid at Abu-Rawash (8 kilometers north of Giza); the pyramid includes a statue of his wife in the form of a sphinx. The solar cult grew in power during his reign. His royal cemetery near of his pyramid and include about 50 mastaba tombs.

Reign from 2566 to 2558 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Khufu)
Successor (Khafra)
Children (Hernet, Baka, Setka, Nikaudjedefre, Hetepheres, Neferhetepes)
Father (Khufu)
Monuments (Pyramid of Djedefre)
Djedefre - Louvre Museum
The pyramid of Djedefre 
Djedefre, built his pyramid here 8km north of Giza near of Abu Rawash. The pyramid itself has a massive 49m channel cut into the bedrock to a 20m deep shaft.

Djedefre Pyramid
Djedefre Pyramid
Djedefre Pyramid
Djedefre Pyramid (Google Earth)
Khafra (Egyptian pharaoh of the Fourth dynasty) his name means (Appearing like Re), his reign between 2558 BC to 2532 BC, 26 years. Khafre was son of King Khufu, his capital at Memphis.  We know little about his reign. But his pyramid at Giza the second largest known pyramid in Egypt is enough.

Reign from 2558 to 2532 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Djedefra)
Successor (Menkaura)
Children (Menkaura, Nebemakhet, Duaenre, Niuserre, Khenterka, Ankhmare, Akhre, Iunmin, Iunre, Sekhemkare, Nikaure, Khamerernebty II, Rekhetre, Shepsetkau, Hemetre)
Father (Pharaoh Khufu)
Mother (Queen Henutsen)
Monuments (Pyramid of Khafra,Great Sphinx of Giza)
King Khafre Egyptian Museum - Cairo
The Pyramid of Khafre is beside the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Height 136 meters, base 215 meters and the weight of stones about 4,880,000 tons.
Khafre's Pyramid
Khafre's Pyramid (Google Earth)
The Great Sphinx of Giza is the largest statue in the world and the oldest known statue in the world (mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head). Length is 74 meters; width is 6 meters, height is 21 meters, built by King Khafre.
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx (Google Earth)
His name mean (Eternal like the Souls of Re), ruling from 2532 B.C to 2503 B.C,(29 years). He was the son of King Khafre, and he married his sister Khamerernebti 2. His pyramid is the smallest pyramids at Giza.

Reign from 2532 to 2503 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Khafre)
Successor (Shepseskaf)
Children (Khuenre, Shepseskaf, Khentkaus I)
Father (Khafra)
Mother (Khamerernebty I)
Monuments (Pyramid at Giza)
Menkaure and Queen
Menkaure's Pyramid at Giza is the smallest Pyramids of Giza. It was built to be the tomb of the Pharaoh Menkaure. Height is 67 meters. Length is 61 meters. Base is 108 meters.
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid (Google Earth)
Queens Pyramids (three small pyramids near Menkaure's pyramid) (Queen Hetepheres,Queen Meritites and Queen Henutsen).
Queens Pyramids
Queens Pyramids (Google Earth)
Shepseskaf was a son of Menkaurethe, his name means (His Soul is Noble). He ruled from 2472 to 2467 B.C. His tomb is in Saqqara. He is the only king of the Fourth Dynasty, who did not build a pyramid, but he built a big mastaba at South Saqqara.

Reign from 2503 to 2498 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Menkaura)
Successor (Userkaf)
Children (Khamaat)
Father (Menkaura)
Shepseskaf (Museum of Fine Arts-Boston)
Shepseskaf’s Mastaba, (100 meters longest side and 75 meters in width).
Shepseskaf Mastaba
Shepseskaf Mastaba (Google Earth)

1 comment:

  1. Egypt historical ares are very precious for all over the world who loves history and i suggest you to find some historical ares in Pakistan by getting cheap flights to pakistan as they are still gets very less research and visits.


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