Saturday, January 15, 2011

Kings and Queens 2

Qa'a  ( 1 st Dynasty )
Qa'a is the last king of the first dynasty, although dates are rather wildly different when it comes to this king.  There isn't much information about him.
His tomb in Abydos and burials in nearby Saqqara from the same time period. A seal impressions listing all the kings of First Dynasty.
Four large tombs in Saqqara date from his reign, two stelae were discovered for officials in his government, Merka and Sabef, with complex inscriptions.
A number of artifacts were found in the tomb during its many excavations, the lower part of two wooden statues was found in one of these tombs in a set of rooms on the north side.
Qa'a is the last king to be buried with subsidiary burials of attendants and servants.

Predecessor (Semerkhet)
Successor (Hotepsekhemwy)
Monuments (Tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab)

Qa'a Tomp
 Hotepsekhemwy  ( 2 nd Dynasty )
Hotepsekhemwy was the first king of the Second dynasty of Egypt. His name means (Pleasing in Powers.) Little is known about his reign. Hotepsekhemwy may have become king through marriage to a princess, may even have carried through the late king's funeral. There are several sealing bearing his name outside Qa'a's tomb at Abydos. The king seems to have been buried at Saqqara, deviating from the Abydos custom with former rulers.

Predecessor (Qa`a)
Successor (Raneb)

Raneb ( 2 nd Dynasty )
There is little information about Raneb, Manetho recorded that Raneb (Ra is Lord) reigned for 39 years, his reign is important because of its chronological position during the Egyptian empire's formative years. Raneb was Hotepsekhemwy's son, or perhaps his brother.
Also many modern scholars believe that his reign was much shorter, lasting between ten and nineteen years years. In fact, some scholars seem to believe that Raneb's reign and that of his predecessor, Hotepsekhemwy, should together be 38 or 39 years, with both therefore having shorter reigns then provided by Manetho.
He is one of the first kings to incorporate the sun god's name, Re, into his own name, a tradition that will be followed by most of the pharaohs in Egypt. he started a number of cults to different gods, including worship of Mendes, Menvis, and a cult to the sacred goat in the delta.

Predecessor (Hotepsekhemwy)
Successor (Nynetjer)
Raneb Stela Metropolitan Museum
Nynetjer ( 2 nd Dynasty )
Nynetjer was the third king of the second dynasty, the capital (Memphis). He ruled ancient Egypt for almost 40 years and he was famous for his festivals and marvelous temples.
Traces of Nynetjer are found with mud sealing at Saqqara. It is suggested that an underground gallery here was his tomb.
The end of his reign seems to have been marked by poor harvests, internal tension, and possibly even civil war. His name has been found on inscriptions from a number of mastaba tombs in Saqqara, Giza, Helwan and Abydos.

Predecessor (Raneb)
Successor (Senedj)
Senedj ( 2 nd Dynasty )
Senedj was a king during the Second Dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 20 years.
When pharaoh Senedj was in power Egypt was probably divided once again into its southern and northern parts, with him as the king in Lower Egypt from the capital Memphis.
Manetho gives him a reign of 41 years and calls him Sethenes. If that name has something to do with the god Seth we don't know, but Egyptian records refer to him as Senedj. His tomb has not as yet been identified.

Predecessor (Nynetjer)
Successor (Seth-Peribsen)

Seth - Peribsen        ( 2 nd Dynasty )
Seth-Peribsen was a king during the Second dynasty of Egypt who ruled for seventeen years, he was buried in Umm el-Qa'ab in Abydos.
His burial stelae (in the British Museum) show a Seth-creature rather than the more common Horus, and this might reveal that the king did not rule over the whole area of Egypt.

Predecessor (Senedj)
Successor (Sekhemib-Perenmaat)

Sekhemi - Perenmaat ( 2 nd Dynasty )
Sekhemib-Perenmaat pharaoh of the Egyptian second dynasty,was a separate king who ruled Lower Egypt at the same time that Peribsen ruled Upper Egypt.

Predecessor ( Seth-Peribsen )
Successor (Khasekhemwy)
Khasekhemwy  ( 2 nd Dynasty )
Khasekhemwy (his name means "The Two Powerful Ones Appear") was the fifth and final king of the Second dynasty of Egypt. Little is known of Khasekhemwy, other than that he led several significant military campaigns and built several monuments.

Predecessor (Sekhemib-Perenmaat)
Successor (Sanakhte)
Children (Djoser,Hetephernebti,Sanakhte)

Khasekhemwy statue cairo museum

Sanakhte  ( 3 rd Dynasty )
Sanakhte also known as (Nebka) was the first king of the third dynasty, his name meaning (Strong protection), ruling from 2686 to 2667 B.C., about 19 years. Sanakhte became king by marrying a daughter of Khasekhemwy. There is a mastaba at Abydos in which fragments with his name have been found. This is also possibly his grave.

Reign from 2686 to 2667 BC   3rd Dynasty
Predecessor (Khasekhemwy)
Successor (Djoser)



Djoser pharaoh the second king of the Third dynasty of Egypt. Djoser ruled Egypt for twenty nine years. Djoser was also known as Netjerikhet, meaning (body of the gods). Statue of Djoser, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, is the oldest known statue. Djoser is known as the king who commissioned the building of the Step Pyramid at Saqqara and the temple complex surrounding it. This is the first building made of stone. Architect who planned and constructed the first stone buildings in the world (Imhotep).

The Pyramid of Djoser, or step pyramid in the Saqqara necropolis. It was built for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser by his vizier Imhotep.

The step pyramid consisted of six mastabas. 62 meters tall. The base about 109 meters X 125 meters.

Predecessor (Sanakhte)
Successor (Sekhmekhet)
Father (Khasekhemwy) 
Mother (Nimaethap)
Monuments (Pyramid of Djoser)

King Djoser. Egyptian museum. Cairo

King Djoser. Egyptian museum. Cairo

Monday, January 10, 2011

Pyramids 1

Step Pyramid (Djoser)

    §  Djoser who commissioned the building of the Step Pyramid at Saqqara and the temple complex 
               surrounding it.
    §  This is the first building made of stone.
    §  Architect who planned and constructed the first stone buildings in the world (Imhotep).
    §  The Pyramid of Djoser built for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser.
    §  The step pyramid consisted of six mastabas. 62 meters tall. The base about 109 meters X 125 meters.


Step Pyramid Djoser
Step Pyramid Djoser Google Earth


Sekhmekhet unfinished pyramid

    §  Sekhmekhet unfinished pyramid at Saqqara.
    §  It may have been designed by Imhotep, who was active after Zoser's death.

Sekhmekhet unfinished pyramid

Layer pyramid

    §  Layer Pyramid (King Khaba) in Zawyet El-Aryan.
    §  It was left unfinished at an early stage
    §  Height 20m (unfinished), base 84m.

Layer Pyramid
Layer Pyramid Google Earth

Maidum pyramid

    §  King Huni built a pyramid at Meidum.
    §  The Maidum Pyramid is a big step forward for pyramid builders.
Maidum Pyramid
Maidum Pyramid Google Earth

Red pyramid

    §  Red Pyramid at Dahshur (King Sneferu).
    §  Red Pyramid takes this name from the red limestone.
    §  Pyramid height 104m, base 220 m.

Red Pyramid 
Red Pyramid Google Earth

Bent pyramid

    §  Bent Pyramid at Dahshur (King Sneferu).
    §  Pyramid height 101m, base 188 m.

Bent Pyramid
Bent Pyramid Google Earth

Great pyramid

    §  Great Pyramid is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza.
    §  It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
    §  Khufu Pyramid is the only one still intact.
    §  Great Pyramid was the tallest structure in the world for over 3,800 years.
    §  Height 146m, long on each side 240m.
    §  Pyramid consists of 2,300,000 blocks of stone, each averaging 2 1/2 tons in weight.

Great Pyramid
Great Pyramid
Great Pyramid (Google Earth)

Djedefre pyramid

    §  Djedefre Pyramid. 8km north of Giza near of Abu Rawash.
    §  The pyramid itself has a massive 49m channel cut into the bedrock to a 20m deep shaft.

Djedefre Pyrarmid
Djedefre Pyrarmid (Google Earth)
Khafre pyramid
    §  The Pyramid of Khafre is beside the Great Pyramid of Khufu.
    §  Height 136 meters, base 215 meters.
    §  Weight of stones about 4,880,000 tons.

Khafre's Pyramid
Khafre's Pyramid (Google Earth)
Menkaure pyramid
    §  Menkaure's Pyramid is the smallest Pyramids of Giza.
    §  It was built to be the tomb of the Pharaoh Menkaure.
    §  Height is 67 meters. Length is 61 meters. Base is 108 meters.
Menkaure Pyramid

Menkaure Pyramid (Google Earth)

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