Thursday, December 30, 2010

Kings and Queens 1

Narmer ( 1 st Dynasty )
King Narmer is thought to have reigned 3150 BC as first king of the 1st dynasty 
The first king starts in securing the country's borders. Trade between Egypt and Sudan was developed, and then embarked on a glorious period of its history, known as the pyramid builder's age, where the first pyramid of Saqqara was built.
With the flourishing of agriculture, industry and trade, the first river fleet was introduced by the Egyptians.

Successor (Hor-Aha)
Mother (Queen Shesh) 

 Menes  ( 1 st Dynasty )
Menes is one of the Egyptian kings. Some sources say he was the son of Narmer while others say he was Narmer. There is no tangible proof either way. And was considered to be the first king to unify Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom. Whether unification was achieved by military or peaceful means is uncertain.
Menes founded the city of Memphis. He chose as its location an island in the Nile, so that it would be easy to defend. During his time, the Egyptian army performed raids against the Nubians in the south and expanded his sphere of influence as far as the First Cataract. He sent ambassadors to Canaan and Byblos in Phoenicia to establish peaceful commercial trade links.
 According to Manetho, Menes was killed by a hippopotamus or by crocodiles after a 62 year reign. His was buried at Saqqara, the necropolis of Memphis.
Hor-Aha  ( 1 st Dynasty )
First king of the 1st Dynasty at Memphis 2920 B.C he is the founder of the city of Memphis, built a dike to reroute a branch of the Nile so that a flat plain could be formed. Memphis was just one of the important political centers of Egypt at the time, but Aha made it his capital. During his reign.
He was buried at Saqqara, the necropolis off Memphis, but he built a second mortuary complex near Abydos. He is supposed to have ruled until his death at the age of 63.

Predecessor (Narmer / Menes)
Successor (Djer)
Mother (Neithhotep)
Monuments (Temple to Neith at Sais )
Children (Djer)
Neithhotep  ( 1 st Dynasty )

Was the first queen of ancient Egypt, and is the earliest woman in history  The name Neithhotep means (The Goddess Neith is satisfied).

Djer  ( 1 st Dynasty )
His name was found in an inscription on the Wadi Halfa (south of the first Cataract)
on Ivory and wood labels from Abydos and Saqqara say he reigned for 57 years.
According to Manetho, he reigned 57 years, but according to modern research (Von Beckerath's Chronologie des pharaonischen Agypten) his reign lasted only two years (3000 BC-2999 BC).
He probably fought several battles against the Libyans in the Nile delta.
Djer's wife was Queen Herneith.
He was buried in the holy place Abydos.
The evidence for Djer's existence:
A tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos.
Seal prints from graves in Saqqara.
Inscriptions in graves in Saqqara.

Predecessor (Hor-Aha)
Successor (Djet)
Monuments (Tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab)
Children (Djet)

 Djet  ( 1 st Dynasty )   
Wadji-Djet is (Horus-Snake) (cobra).
Little is known about his reign, but he has become famous because of the survival, in well-preserved form, of one of his artistically refined tomb steles. His reign would have lasted 11 years, around 3040 B.C.
His limestone stela was found near Abydos where he was buried.

Predecessor (Djer)
Successor (Den)
Children (Den)
 Merneith  ( 1 st Dynasty )
Merneith’s name means (Beloved by Neith)
Merneith her rule occurred the thirtieth century B.C., for an undetermined period of time. Merneith’s name means Beloved by Neith and her stela contains symbols of that deity. She was Djet's senior royal wife and the mother of Den.
Queen Merneith she is the first woman in the history of ancient Egypt recorded as regent.
After the death of Djet, whose rule seems to have been short, it is believed that Merneith reigned for a period while her son Den was too young.
Two large funerary stelae with the name of Merneith.
At Abydos a tomb belonging to Merneith was found in an area associated with other rulers of the First Dynasty. A stela made of stone identifying the tomb as hers was found at the site.
At Saqqara a funerary monument dedicated to her was found along with those of five other rulers from the same period. Inside her monument archeologists discovered a solar boat that would allow her to travel with the sun god in the afterlife.

Den ( 1 st Dynasty )
King Den since the king revived power in Egypt as an baby, Queen Merenith was constituted as his political consultant, which basically meant that she reined Egypt till he was able doing so himself. Den reigned Egypt for about 50 years
King Den had a prosperous time on the throne and art and economy seem to have flourished. Many innovations saw the daylight during his reign and he adopted the double crown to underline his dual kingship over the two countries.
King Den's tomb at the royal burial site at Abydos an average square memorial, but had a new feature in cast of a very long broad stairs leading instantly to the tomb chamber. This new architectural designing was rapidly adoptive in the private tomb sphere as well as the coming kings.
Around thirty great mastabas from his reign period were established by officials from Saqqara and upward north to Abu Roash. This was far more on the rules of his predecessors who just had a few constructed on their time on the throne.
King Den’s Tomb at abydos applies a lot granite, 136 accessory burials. It is bordered by a brick wall. Firstly a stairwell was amplified the burial chamber, which is 23.77 meter heights. There are two parts of stairway were apart by a wooden door. Likewise there are jar seailings and twenty ebony and ivory catchers commemorating the Den’s reign.

Predecessor (Djet)
Successor (Anedjib)
 Anedjib ( 1 st Dynasty )          
Anedjib name means (Safe Is His Heart)
He kept Memphis as his capitol city throughout his approximate 14 years of rule, as the exact number of years remains unknown.
Anedjib's crown carried the symbols of both Upper and Lower Egypt, a representation of the unification of the country under his power.
His wife, Queen Betrest, was the mother of King Semerkhet
Order broke down during his reign when conflicting factions caused changes that would end this great dynasty.
Anedjib wore the double-crown of Egypt (the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt) as a representation of his power over both regions. There is some doubt, however, that he really controlled the north, since there is evidence of constant rebellion. Anedjib, in an attempt to legitimize his rule,
Anedjib built a tomb at Abydos, but it is one of the worst built and smallest of the Abydos royal tombs, the burial chamber was constructed entirely of wood, and there were 64 graves of retainers within the area, also of low grade construction.
Another tomb which was apparently built during the reign of Anedjib is that of an official named Nebitka at Saqqara. This tomb is interesting in that it contained a mud brick stepped structure inside the Mastaba like structure that some Egyptologists see as a forerunner of Djoser's Step Pyramid.

Predecessor (Den)
Successor (Semerkhet)

Semerkhet  ( 1 st Dynasty )
Semerkhet name means (thoughtful friend). We know very little about his reign. The Palermo stone only records some religious ceremonies and that his mother was named Batirytes.
According to Manetho Semerkhet had a very difficult reign, that he reigned for eighteen years, while the Palermo stone only records an eight year reign Either way, he had time to build a much bigger tomb than his predecessor Anedjib. He was interred in Tomb U of the royal necropolis at Umm el-Qa'ab, near Abydos.

Predecessor (Anedjib)
Successor (Qa'a)


Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Ancient Egypt - Dynasty 4

The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt is called (the golden age).from 2613 to 2494 BC, 115 years. The capital at fourth dynasty time was Memphis. Fourth Dynasty is the height of Egyptian civilization ever, the family which has built the Pyramids of Giza, the most famous buildings in world history forever. Egypt was able to accomplish the ambitious feat of the Giza pyramids because there had been a long period of peace and no threats of invasion.

Giza Pyramids

The kings of fourth dynasty:

Palermo Stone Petrie Museum
Sneferu ruled Egypt of 2613 BC to 2589. He was the founder of the Fourth Dynasty in Egypt. He is the first king of the construction of the pyramid is real. Three famous pyramids associated with the name of King Senefru (Meidum Pyramid, Red Pyramid and Bent pyramids at Dahshur).This pyramids that survive to this day.

Predecessor (Huni)
Successor (Khufu)
Children (Nefermaat, Rahotep, Ranefer, Hetepheres A, Khufu, Kanefer, Ankhhaf, Netjeraperef, Iynefer I, Meritites I, Nefertkau, Nefertnesu, Henutsen)
Mother (Meresankh I)
Monuments (Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid, Meidum Pyramid)
King Sneferu
Meidum Pyramid (this pyramid was possibly started by his predecessor Huni).
Meidum Pyramid
Meidum Pyramid (Google Earth)
Red Pyramid takes this name from the red limestone. Pyramid height 104m, base 220 m.

Red Pyramid
Red Pyramid
Red Pyramid
Red Pyramid (Google Earth)

The Bent Pyramid this pyramid built by Sneferu, height 101 m, base 188 m.

Bent Pyramid
Bent Pyramid 
Bent Pyramid
Bent Pyramid
Bent Pyramid (Google Earth)
Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt's (Old Kingdom). He ruled from around 2589 to 2566 B.C. 23 years. Generally Khufu was accepted as being the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Khufu's full name was (Khnum-Khufu) by the meaning (the god Khnum protects me).The history remembers Khufu, the Great Pyramid of Giza as a testament to his tremendous ability to coordinate hundreds of workers towards one purpose. It is through this fantastic architectural marvel that Khufu will be remembered as one of many famous Egyptian pharaohs.

Reign from 2589 to 2566 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Sneferu)
Successor (Djedefre)
Children (Kawab, Djedefhor, Hetepheres II, Meritites II, Meresankh II, Baufra, Djedefra, Minkhaf I, Khafre, Khufukhaf I, Babaef I, Horbaef, Nefertiabet, possibly Khamerernebty I, possibly Nefermaat II)
Father (Pharaoh Sneferu)
Mother (Queen Hetepheres I)
Monuments (Great Pyramid of Giza, Khufu ship)
King Khufu Egyptian museum
King Khufu Egyptian museum
King Khufu Egyptian museum
Great Pyramid is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one still intact. Height 146m, long on each side 240m, and consists of 2,300,000 blocks of stone, each averaging 2 1/2 tons in weight. Great Pyramid was the tallest structure in the world for over 3,800 years.

Great Pyramid
Great Pyramid
Great Pyramid (Google Earth)

From the book Guide to the Pyramids of Egypt, by Alberto Siliotti, with preface by Zahi Hawass
The American University in Cairo Press
113 Kasr el Aini Street
Cairo Egypt
ISBN 977-424-446-X

Khufu's Solar Boat, it was built to carry a Pharaoh across the Nile. Now it rests in a solar boat museum beside Khufu pyramid. The boat measured 43.6m long by 5.9m wide; and it is around 45 tons.

Solar Boat
Solar Boat
Solar Boat in Stamp
Solar Boat (Google Earth)
Solar Boat Museum
Solar Boat Museum (Google Earth)

Djedefre was the son and successor of Khufu. He ruled Egypt from 2528 BC, to 2520 BC. (8 years). His name meaning (enduring like Re). He built his pyramid at Abu-Rawash (8 kilometers north of Giza); the pyramid includes a statue of his wife in the form of a sphinx. The solar cult grew in power during his reign. His royal cemetery near of his pyramid and include about 50 mastaba tombs.

Reign from 2566 to 2558 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Khufu)
Successor (Khafra)
Children (Hernet, Baka, Setka, Nikaudjedefre, Hetepheres, Neferhetepes)
Father (Khufu)
Monuments (Pyramid of Djedefre)
Djedefre - Louvre Museum
The pyramid of Djedefre 
Djedefre, built his pyramid here 8km north of Giza near of Abu Rawash. The pyramid itself has a massive 49m channel cut into the bedrock to a 20m deep shaft.

Djedefre Pyramid
Djedefre Pyramid
Djedefre Pyramid
Djedefre Pyramid (Google Earth)
Khafra (Egyptian pharaoh of the Fourth dynasty) his name means (Appearing like Re), his reign between 2558 BC to 2532 BC, 26 years. Khafre was son of King Khufu, his capital at Memphis.  We know little about his reign. But his pyramid at Giza the second largest known pyramid in Egypt is enough.

Reign from 2558 to 2532 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Djedefra)
Successor (Menkaura)
Children (Menkaura, Nebemakhet, Duaenre, Niuserre, Khenterka, Ankhmare, Akhre, Iunmin, Iunre, Sekhemkare, Nikaure, Khamerernebty II, Rekhetre, Shepsetkau, Hemetre)
Father (Pharaoh Khufu)
Mother (Queen Henutsen)
Monuments (Pyramid of Khafra,Great Sphinx of Giza)
King Khafre Egyptian Museum - Cairo
The Pyramid of Khafre is beside the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Height 136 meters, base 215 meters and the weight of stones about 4,880,000 tons.
Khafre's Pyramid
Khafre's Pyramid (Google Earth)
The Great Sphinx of Giza is the largest statue in the world and the oldest known statue in the world (mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head). Length is 74 meters; width is 6 meters, height is 21 meters, built by King Khafre.
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx
Great Sphinx (Google Earth)
His name mean (Eternal like the Souls of Re), ruling from 2532 B.C to 2503 B.C,(29 years). He was the son of King Khafre, and he married his sister Khamerernebti 2. His pyramid is the smallest pyramids at Giza.

Reign from 2532 to 2503 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Khafre)
Successor (Shepseskaf)
Children (Khuenre, Shepseskaf, Khentkaus I)
Father (Khafra)
Mother (Khamerernebty I)
Monuments (Pyramid at Giza)
Menkaure and Queen
Menkaure's Pyramid at Giza is the smallest Pyramids of Giza. It was built to be the tomb of the Pharaoh Menkaure. Height is 67 meters. Length is 61 meters. Base is 108 meters.
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid
Menkaure Pyramid (Google Earth)
Queens Pyramids (three small pyramids near Menkaure's pyramid) (Queen Hetepheres,Queen Meritites and Queen Henutsen).
Queens Pyramids
Queens Pyramids (Google Earth)
Shepseskaf was a son of Menkaurethe, his name means (His Soul is Noble). He ruled from 2472 to 2467 B.C. His tomb is in Saqqara. He is the only king of the Fourth Dynasty, who did not build a pyramid, but he built a big mastaba at South Saqqara.

Reign from 2503 to 2498 BC      4th Dynasty
Predecessor (Menkaura)
Successor (Userkaf)
Children (Khamaat)
Father (Menkaura)
Shepseskaf (Museum of Fine Arts-Boston)
Shepseskaf’s Mastaba, (100 meters longest side and 75 meters in width).
Shepseskaf Mastaba
Shepseskaf Mastaba (Google Earth)
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...