The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (The Early Dynastic). The capital at that time was Thinis.
Large tombs for their Pharaohs or kings at Abydos, Neqada and Saqqara in also at Helwan near Memphis.
During this time papyrus was invented and as a consequence writing was used as an administrative tool of government, the magnificent artifacts that have been found from this period.
The kings of first dynasty:
King Narmer is thought to have reigned 3150 BC as first king of the 1st dynasty
The first king starts in securing the country's borders. Trade between Egypt and Sudan was developed, and then embarked on a glorious period of its history, known as the pyramid builder's age, where the first pyramid of Saqqara was built.
With the flourishing of agriculture, industry and trade, the first river fleet was introduced by the Egyptians.
The Narmer Palette dating from about the 31st century BC, containing some of the earliest hieroglyphic. On one side the king is depicted with the White crown of Upper Egypt and the other side depicts the king wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. The Egyptologist Bob Brier has referred to the Narmer Palette as "the first historical document in the world".
The Narmer Palette is part of the permanent collection of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
Mother (Queen Shesh)
Menes is one of the Egyptian kings. Some sources say he was the son of Narmer while others say he was Narmer. There is no tangible proof either way. And was considered to be the first king to unify Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom. Whether unification was achieved by military or peaceful means is uncertain.
Menes founded the city of Memphis. He chose as its location an island in the Nile, so that it would be easy to defend. During his time, the Egyptian army performed raids against the Nubians in the south and expanded his sphere of influence as far as the First Cataract. He sent ambassadors to Canaan and Byblos in Phoenicia to establish peaceful commercial trade links.
According to Manetho, Menes was killed by a hippopotamus or by crocodiles after a 62 year reign. His was buried at Saqqara, the necropolis of Memphis.
First king of the 1st Dynasty at Memphis 2920 B.C he is the founder of the city of Memphis, built a dike to reroute a branch of the Nile so that a flat plain could be formed. Memphis was just one of the important political centers of Egypt at the time, but Aha made it his capital. During his reign.
He was buried at Saqqara, the necropolis off Memphis, but he built a second mortuary complex near Abydos. He is supposed to have ruled until his death at the age of 63.
Predecessor (Narmer / Menes)
Monuments (Temple to Neith at Sais )
His name was found in an inscription on the Wadi Halfa (south of the first Cataract)
on Ivory and wood labels from Abydos and Saqqara say he reigned for 57 years.
According to Manetho, he reigned 57 years, but according to modern research (Von Beckerath's Chronologie des pharaonischen Agypten) his reign lasted only two years (3000 BC-2999 BC).
He probably fought several battles against the Libyans in the Nile delta.
Djer's wife was Queen Herneith.
He was buried in the holy place Abydos.
The evidence for Djer's existence:
A tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos.
Seal prints from graves in Saqqara.
Inscriptions in graves in Saqqara.
Monuments (Tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab)
Wadji-Djet is (Horus-Snake) (cobra).
Little is known about his reign, but he has become famous because of the survival, in well-preserved form, of one of his artistically refined tomb steles. His reign would have lasted 11 years, around 3040 B.C.
His limestone stela was found near Abydos where he was buried.
Merneith’s name means (Beloved by Neith)
Merneith her rule occurred the thirtieth century B.C., for an undetermined period of time. Merneith’s name means Beloved by Neith and her stela contains symbols of that deity. She was Djet's senior royal wife and the mother of Den.
Queen Merneith she is the first woman in the history of ancient Egypt recorded as regent.
After the death of Djet, whose rule seems to have been short, it is believed that Merneith reigned for a period while her son Den was too young.
Two large funerary stelae with the name of Merneith.
At Abydos a tomb belonging to Merneith was found in an area associated with other rulers of the First Dynasty. A stela made of stone identifying the tomb as hers was found at the site.
At Saqqara a funerary monument dedicated to her was found along with those of five other rulers from the same period. Inside her monument archeologists discovered a solar boat that would allow her to travel with the sun god in the afterlife.
King Den since the king revived power in Egypt as an baby, Queen Merenith was constituted as his political consultant, which basically meant that she reined Egypt till he was able doing so himself. Den reigned Egypt for about 50 years
King Den had a prosperous time on the throne and art and economy seem to have flourished. Many innovations saw the daylight during his reign and he adopted the double crown to underline his dual kingship over the two countries.
King Den's tomb at the royal burial site at Abydos an average square memorial, but had a new feature in cast of a very long broad stairs leading instantly to the tomb chamber. This new architectural designing was rapidly adoptive in the private tomb sphere as well as the coming kings.
Around thirty great mastabas from his reign period were established by officials from Saqqara and upward north to Abu Roash. This was far more on the rules of his predecessors who just had a few constructed on their time on the throne.
King Den’s Tomb at abydos applies a lot granite, 136 accessory burials. It is bordered by a brick wall. Firstly a stairwell was amplified the burial chamber, which is 23.77 meter heights. There are two parts of stairway were apart by a wooden door. Likewise there are jar seailings and twenty ebony and ivory catchers commemorating the Den’s reign.
Anedjib name means (Safe Is His Heart)
He kept Memphis as his capitol city throughout his approximate 14 years of rule, as the exact number of years remains unknown.
Anedjib's crown carried the symbols of both Upper and Lower Egypt, a representation of the unification of the country under his power.
His wife, Queen Betrest, was the mother of King Semerkhet
Order broke down during his reign when conflicting factions caused changes that would end this great dynasty.
Anedjib wore the double-crown of Egypt (the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt) as a representation of his power over both regions. There is some doubt, however, that he really controlled the north, since there is evidence of constant rebellion. Anedjib, in an attempt to legitimize his rule,
Anedjib built a tomb at Abydos, but it is one of the worst built and smallest of the Abydos royal tombs, the burial chamber was constructed entirely of wood, and there were 64 graves of retainers within the area, also of low grade construction.
Another tomb which was apparently built during the reign of Anedjib is that of an official named Nebitka at Saqqara. This tomb is interesting in that it contained a mud brick stepped structure inside the Mastaba like structure that some Egyptologists see as a forerunner of Djoser's Step Pyramid.
Semerkhet name means (thoughtful friend). We know very little about his reign. The Palermo stone only records some religious ceremonies and that his mother was named Batirytes.
According to Manetho Semerkhet had a very difficult reign, that he reigned for eighteen years, while the Palermo stone only records an eight year reign Either way, he had time to build a much bigger tomb than his predecessor Anedjib. He was interred in Tomb U of the royal necropolis at Umm el-Qa'ab, near Abydos.
Qa'a is the last king of the first dynasty, although dates are rather wildly different when it comes to this king. There isn't much information about him.
His tomb in Abydos and burials in nearby Saqqara from the same time period. A seal impressions listing all the kings of First Dynasty.
Four large tombs in Saqqara date from his reign, two stelae were discovered for officials in his government, Merka and Sabef, with complex inscriptions.
A number of artifacts were found in the tomb during its many excavations, the lower part of two wooden statues was found in one of these tombs in a set of rooms on the north side.
Qa'a is the last king to be buried with subsidiary burials of attendants and servants.
Monuments (Tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab)